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1、【题目】Part IV Translation

The personal service they provide is so deep-rooted in Japan that they are likely to operate alongside the glittering new showrooms. (Passage Three)











1、【题目】The discovery of the Antarctic not only proved one of the most interesting of all geographical adventures, but created what might be called “the heroic age of Antarctic exploration”. By their tremendous heroism, men such as Shakleton, Scott, and Amundsen caused a new continent to emerge from the shadows, and yet that heroic age, little more than a century old, is already passing. Modern science and inventions are revolutionizing the endurance, future journeys into these icy wastes will probably depend on motor vehicles equipped with caterpillar traction rather than on the dogsthat earlier discoverers found so invaluable and hardly comparable.

Few realize that this Antarctic continent is almost equal in size to South America, and enormous field of work awaits geographers and prospectors. The coasts of this continent remain to be accurately charted, and the maping of the whole of the interior presents a formidable task to the cartographers who undertake the work. Once their labors are completed, it will be possible to prospect the vast natural resources which scientists believe will furnish one of the largest treasure hoards of metals and minerals the world has yet known, and almost inexhaustible sources of copper,coal, uranium, and many other ores will become available to man. Such discoveries will usher in an era of practical exploitation of the Antarctic wastes.

The polar darkness which hides this continent for the six winter months will be defeated by huge batteries of light, and make possible the establishing of air-fields for the future inter-continental air services by making these areas as light as day. Present flying routes will be completely changed, for the Antarctic refueling bases will make flights from Australia to South America comparatively easy over the 5,000 miles journey.

The climate is not likely to offer an insuperable problem, for the explorer Admiral Byrd has shown that the climate is possible even for men completely untrained for expeditions into those frozen wastes. Some of his parties were men who had never seen snow before, and yet he records that they survived the rigors of the Antarctic climate comfortably, so that, provided that the appropriate installations are made, we may assume that human beings from all countries could live there safely. Byrd even affirms that it is probably the most healthy climate in the world, for the intense cold of thousands of years has sterilize this continent, and rendered it absolutely germfree, with the consequences that ordinary and extraordinary sickness and diseases from which man suffers in other zones with different climates are here utterly unknown. There exist no problems of conservation and preservation of food supplies, for the latter keep indefinitely without any signs of deterioration; it may even be that later generations will come to regard the Antarctic as the natural storehouse for the whole world.

Plans are already on foot to set up permanent bases on the shores of this continent, and what so few years ago was regarded as a “dead continent” now promises to be a most active center of human life and endeavor.

1.When did man begin to explore the Antarctic?

A.About 100years ago.

B.In this century.

C.At the beginning of the 19th century.

D.In 1798.

2.What must the explorers be, even though they have modern equipment and techniques?

A.Brave and tough

B.Stubborn and arrogant.

C.Well-liked and humorous.

D.Stout and smart.

3.The most healthy climate in the world is___.

A.in South America.

B.in the Arctic Region.

C.in the Antarctic Continent.

D.in the Atlantic Ocean.

4.What kind of metals and minerals can we find in the Antarctic?

A.Magnetite, coal and ores.

B.Copper, coal and uranium.

C.Silver, natural gas and uranium.

D.Aluminum, copper and natural gas.

5.What is planned for the continent?

A.Building dams along the coasts.

B.Setting up several summer resorts along the coasts.

C.Mapping the coast and whole territory.

D.Setting up permanent bases on the coasts.














Nowadays, China is stepping into the aging society. Therefore, the only-child generation is facing enormous pressure both from work and life. The Chinese government has begun to adjust the familyplanning policy and allows some families to have a second child under certain circumstances. However, the survey shows thatsome couples abandon to have a second child due to the increasing financial burden. Thus, in order to solve the aging problem,the basic thing is not relying on the increase of birth rate. The best solution is to establish an effective social security system.



1、【题目】We can begin our discussion of “population as global issue” with what most persons mean when they discuss “the population problem”: too many people on earth and a too rapid increase in the number added each year. The facts are not in dispute, It was quite right to employ the analogy that likened demographic growth to “a long, thin powder fuse that burns steadily and haltingly until it finally reaches the charge and explodes.”

To understand the current situation, which is characterized by rapid increases in population, it is necessary to understand the history of population trends. Rapid growth is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Looking back at the 8,000 years of demographic history, we find that populations have been virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history. For most of our ancestors, life was hard, often nasty, and very short. There was high fertility in most places, but this was usually balanced by high mortality. For most of human history, it was seldom the case that one in ten persons would live past forty, while infancy and childhood were especially risky periods. Often, societies were in clear danger of extinction because death rates could exceed their birthrates. Thus, the population problem throughout most of history was how to prevent extinction of the human race.

This pattern is important to notice. Not only does it put the current problems of demographic growth into a historical perspective, but it suggests that the cause of rapid increase in population in recent years is not a sudden enthusiasm for more children, but an improvement in the conditions that traditionally have caused high mortality.

Demographic history can be divided into two major periods: a time of long, slow growth which extended from about 8,000 BC.till approximately AD. 1650. In the first period of some 9600 years, the population increased from some 8 million to 500 million in 1650. Between 1650 and the present, the population has increased from 500 million to more than 4 billion. And it is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be 6.2 billion people throughout the world. One way to appreciate this dramatic difference in such abstract numbers is to reduce the time frame to something that is more manageable. Between 8000BC and 1650, an average of only 50,000 persons was being added annually to the world’s population each year. At present, this number is added every six hours. The increase is about 80,000,000 persons annually.

1.Which of the following demographic growth pattern is most suitable for the long thin powder fuse analogy?

A.A virtually stable or slightly decreasing period and then a sudden explosion of population.

B.A slow growth for a long time and then a period of rapid, dramatic increase.

C.Too many people on earth and a few rapid increase in the number added each year.

D.A long period when death rates exceeds birthrates and then a short period with higher fertility and lower mortality.

2.During the first period of demographic history, societies were often in danger of extinction because___.

A.only one in ten persons could live past 40.

B.there was higher mortality than fertility in most places.

C.it was too dangerous to have babies due to the poor conditions.

D.our ancestors had little enthusiasm for more children.

3.Which statement is true about population increase?

A.There might be an increase of 2.2 billion persons from now to the year 2000.

B.About 50,000 babies are born every six hours at present.

C.Between 8000 BC and the present, the population increase is about 80,000,000 persons each year.

D.The population increased faster between 8000BC and 1650 than between 1650 and the present.

4.The author of the passage intends to___.

A.warn people against the population explosion in the near future.

B.compare the demographic growth pattern in the past with that after 1650.

C.find out the cause for rapid increase in population in recent years.

D.present us a clear and complete picture of the demographic growth.

5.The word “demographic” in the first paragraph means___.

A.statistics of human.

B.surroundings study.

C.accumulation of human.

D.development of human.





1、【题目】Part IV Translation

Yet these carcinogenic additives remain in our food, and it becomes more difficult all the time to know which things on the packaging labels of processed food are helpful or harmful. (Passage Two)





1、【题目】If the old maxim that the customer is always right still has meaning, then the airlines that ply the world’s busiest air route between London and Paris have a flight on their hands.

The Eurostar train service linking the UK and French capitals via the Channel Tunnel is winning customers in increasing numbers. In late May, it carried its one millionth passenger, having run only a limited service between London, Paris and Brussels since November 1994, starting with two trains a day in each direction to Paris and Brussels. By 1997, the company believes that it will be carrying ten million passengers a year, and continue to grow from there.

From July, Eurostar steps its service to nine trains each way between London and Paris, and five between London and Brussels. Each train carries almost 800 passengers, 210 of them in first class.

The airlines estimate that they will initially lose around 15%-20% of their London-Paris traffic to the railways once Eurostar starts a full service later this year (1995), with 15 trains a day each way. A similar service will start to Brussels. The damage will be limited, however, the airlines believe, with passenger numbers returning to previous levels within two to three years.

In the short term, the damage caused by the 1 million people-levels traveling between London and Paris and Brussels on Eurostar trains means that some air services are already suffering. Some of the major carriers say that their passenger numbers are down by less than 5% and point to their rivals-Particularly Air France-as having suffered the problems. On the Brussels route, the railway company had less success, and the airlines report anything from around a 5% drop to no visible decline in traffic.

The airlines’ optimism on returning traffic levels is based on historical precedent. British Midland, for example, points to its experience on Heathrow Leeds Bradford service which saw passenger numbers fold by 15% when British Rail electrified and modernized the railway line between London and Yorkshire. Two years later, travel had risen between the two destinations to the point where the airline was carrying record numbers of passengers.

1.British airlines confide in the fact that__.

A.they are more powerful than other European airlines.

B.their total loss won’t go beyond a drop of 5% passengers.

C.their traffic levels will return in 2-3 years.

D.traveling by rail can never catch up with traveling by air.

2.The author’s attitude towards the drop of passengers may be described as__.


3.In the passage, British Rail (Para 6) is mentioned to__.

A.provide a comparison with Eurostar.

B.support the airlines’ optimism.

C.prove the inevitable drop of air passengers.

D.call for electrification and modernization of the railway.

4.The railway’s Brussels route is brought forth to show that__.

A.the Eurostar train service is not doing good business.

B.the airlines can well compete with the railway.

C.the Eurostar train service only caused little damage.

D.only some airlines, such as Air France, are suffering.

5.The passage is taken from the first of an essay, from which we may well predict that in the following part the author is going to__.

A.praise the airlines’ clear-mindedness.

B.warn the airlines of high-speed rail services.

C.propose a reduction of London/Paris flights.

D.advise the airlines to follow British Midland as their model.











































1、【题目】Scattered through the seas of the world are billions of tons of small plants and animals called plankton. Most of these plants and animals are too small for the human eye to see. They drift about lazily with the currents, providing a basic food for many larger animals. Plankton has been described as the equivalent of the grasses that grow on the dry land continents, and the comparison is an appropriate one. In potential food value however, plankton far outweighs that of the land grasses. One scientist has estimated that while grasses of the world produce about 49 billion tons of valuable carbohydrates each year. The sea’s plankton generates more than twice as much.

Despite its enormous food potential, little effort was made until recently to farm plankton as we farm grasses on land. Now marine scientists have at last begun to study this possibility, especially as the sea’s resources loom even more important as a means of feeding an expanding world population.

No one yet has seriously suggested that “planktonburgers” may soon become popular around the world. As a possible farmed supplementary food source, however, plankton is gaining considerable interest among marine scientists.

One type of plankton that seems to have great harvest possibilities is a tiny shrimplike creature called krill. Growing to two or three inches long, krill provide the major food for the giant blue whale, the largest animal ever to inhabit the Earth. Realizing that this whale may grow 100 feet and weigh 150 tons at maturity, it is not surprising that each one devours more than one ton of krill daily.

Krill swim about just below the surface in huge schools sometimes miles wide, mainly in the cold Antarctic. Because of their pink color, they often appear as a solid reddish mass when viewed from a ship or from the air. Krill are very high in food value. A pound of these crustaceans contains about 460 calories—about the same as shrimp or lobster, to which they are related.

If the krill can feed such huge creatures as whales, many scientists reason, they must certainly be contenders as new food source for humans.

1.Which of the following best portrays the organization of the passage?

A.The author presents the advantages and disadvantages of plankton as a food source.

B.The author quotes public opinion to support the argument for farming plankton.

C.The author classifies the different food sources according to amount of carbohydrate.

D.The author makes a general statement about plankton as a food source and then moves to a specific example.

2.According to the passage, why is plankton regarded to be more valuable than land grasses?

A.It is easier to cultivate.

B.It produces more carbohydrates.

C.It does not require soil.

D.It is more palatable.

3.Why does the author mention “planktonburgers”?

A.To describe the appearance of one type of plankton.

B.To illustrate how much plankton a whale consumes.

C.To suggest plankton as a possible food sources.

D.To compare the food values of beef and plankton.

4.What is mentioned as one conspicuous feature of krill?

A.They are the smallest marine animals.

B.They are pink in color.

C.They are similar in size to lobsters.

D.They have grass like bodies.

5.The author mentions all of the following as reasons why plankton could be considered a human food source except that it is ___.

A.high in food value.

B.in abundant supply in the oceans.

C.an appropriate food for other animals.

D.free of chemicals and pollutants.






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