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1、【题目】Once it was possible to define male and female roles easily by the division of labor. Men worked outside the home and earned the income to support their families, while women cooked the meals and took care of the home and the children. These roles were firmly fixed for most people, and there was not much opportunity for women to exchange their roles. But by the middle of this century, men’s and women’s roles were becoming less firmly fixed.

In the 1950s, economic and social success was the goal of the typical American. But in the 1960s a new force developed called the counterculture. The people involved in this movement did not value the middle-class American goals. The counterculture presented men and women with new role choices. Taking more interest in childcare, men began to share child-raising tasks with their wives. In fact, some young men and women moved to communal homes or farms where the economic and childcare responsibilities were shared equally by both sexes. In addition, many Americans did not value the traditional male role of soldier. Some young men refused to be drafted as soldiers to fight in the war in Vietnam.

In terms of numbers, the counterculture was not a very large group of people. But its influence spread to many parts of American society. Working men of all classes began to change their economic and social patterns. Industrial workers and business executives alike cut down on “overtime” work so that they could spend more leisure time with their families. Some doctors, lawyers, and teachers turned away from high paying situations to practice their professions in poorer neighborhoods.

In the 1970s, the feminist movement, or women’s liberation, produced additional economic and social changes. Women of all ages and at all levels of society were entering the work force in greater numbers. Most of them still took traditional women’s jobs as public school teaching, nursing, and secretarial work. But some women began to enter traditionally male occupations: police work, banking, dentistry, and construction work. Women were asking for equal work, and equal opportunities for promotion.

Today the experts generally agree that important changes are taking place in the roles of men and women. Naturally, there are difficulties in adjusting to these transformations.

1.Which of the following best express the main idea of Paragraph 1?

A.Women usually worked outside the home for wages.

B.Men and women’s roles were easily exchanged in the past.

C.Men’s roles at home were more firmly fixed than women’s.

D.Men and women’s roles were usually quite separated in the past.

2.Which sentence best expresses the main idea of Paragraph 2?

A.The first sentence.

B.The second and the third sentences.

C.The fourth sentence.

D.The last sentence.

3.In the passage the author proposes that the counterculture___.

A.destroyed the United States.

B.transformed some American values.

C.was not important in the United States.

D.brought people more leisure time with their families.

4.It could be inferred from the passage that___.

A.men and women will never share the same goals.

B.some men will be willing to exchange their traditional male roles.

C.most men will be happy to share some of the household responsibilities with their wives.

D.more American households are headed by women than ever before.

5.The best title for the passage may be ___.

A.Results of Feminist Movements

B.New influence in American Life

C.Counterculture and Its consequence

D.Traditional Division of Male and Female Roles.








Nowadays, China is stepping into the aging society. Therefore, the only-child generation is facing enormous pressure both from work and life. The Chinese government has begun to adjust the familyplanning policy and allows some families to have a second child under certain circumstances. However, the survey shows thatsome couples abandon to have a second child due to the increasing financial burden. Thus, in order to solve the aging problem,the basic thing is not relying on the increase of birth rate. The best solution is to establish an effective social security system.



1、【题目】More attention was paid to the quality of production in France at the time of Rene Coty. Charles Deschanel was then the financial minister. He stressed that workmanship and quality were more important than quantity for industrial production. It would be necessary to produce quality goods for the international markets to compete with those produced in other countries. The French economy needed a larger share of international market to balance its import and export trade.

French industrial and agricultural production was still inadequate to meet the immediate needs of the people, let alone long-ranged developments. Essential imports had stretched the national credit to the breaking point. Rents were tightly controlled, but the extreme inflation affected general population most severely through the cost of food. Food costs took as much as 80 percent of the worker's income. Wages, it is true, had risen. Extensive family allowances and benefits were paid by the state, and there was fulltime and overtime employment. Taken together, these factors enabled the working class to exist but allowed them no sense of security. In this discouraging situation, workmen were willing to work overseas for higher wages.

The government was unwilling to let workers leave the country. It was feared that migration of workers would reduce the labor force. The lack of qualified workers might hinder the improvement in the quality of industrial products produced. Qualified workers employed abroad would only increase the quantity of quality goods produced in foreign countries. Also the quantity of quality goods produced in France would not be able to increase as part of its ualified labor force moved to other countries.

1. The purpose of the passage is to_______.

A. explain the French government's emphasis on quality products

B. discuss Charles Deschanel's contribution to the French industrial development

C. compare the quality of French goods with that of foreign goods

D. show French workmen's enthusiasm to seek well-paid jobs in foreign countries

2. It can be inferred from the passage that at the time of Rene Coty .

A. France was still at the first stage of industrial development

B. French workers were better paid than the workers in any other European countries

C. the unemployment rate in France was comparatively higher than that in other European countries

D. French workers were able to live better with the increase in their wages

3. It is implied in the passage that at that time_______.

A. France had a very large share of international market

B. the import and export trade in France was making a successful advance

C. demand and supply in France was barely balanced

D. France was experiencing economic depression

4. Which of the following is the best indicator of the extreme inflation in France?

A. Eighty percent increase in the prices of consumer goods. B. High cost of food.

C. High rents for houses. D. Lack of agricultural products.

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A. Rents in France were tightly controlled.

B. France was flooding the international market with inferior product s.

C. French workers were prohibited from going abroad to find jobs.

D. The migration of French workers would hinder the improvement of quality in industrial production.


1. A 2. A 3. D 4. B 5. B









1、【题目】The discovery of the Antarctic not only proved one of the most interesting of all geographical adventures, but created what might be called “the heroic age of Antarctic exploration”. By their tremendous heroism, men such as Shakleton, Scott, and Amundsen caused a new continent to emerge from the shadows, and yet that heroic age, little more than a century old, is already passing. Modern science and inventions are revolutionizing the endurance, future journeys into these icy wastes will probably depend on motor vehicles equipped with caterpillar traction rather than on the dogsthat earlier discoverers found so invaluable and hardly comparable.

Few realize that this Antarctic continent is almost equal in size to South America, and enormous field of work awaits geographers and prospectors. The coasts of this continent remain to be accurately charted, and the maping of the whole of the interior presents a formidable task to the cartographers who undertake the work. Once their labors are completed, it will be possible to prospect the vast natural resources which scientists believe will furnish one of the largest treasure hoards of metals and minerals the world has yet known, and almost inexhaustible sources of copper,coal, uranium, and many other ores will become available to man. Such discoveries will usher in an era of practical exploitation of the Antarctic wastes.

The polar darkness which hides this continent for the six winter months will be defeated by huge batteries of light, and make possible the establishing of air-fields for the future inter-continental air services by making these areas as light as day. Present flying routes will be completely changed, for the Antarctic refueling bases will make flights from Australia to South America comparatively easy over the 5,000 miles journey.

The climate is not likely to offer an insuperable problem, for the explorer Admiral Byrd has shown that the climate is possible even for men completely untrained for expeditions into those frozen wastes. Some of his parties were men who had never seen snow before, and yet he records that they survived the rigors of the Antarctic climate comfortably, so that, provided that the appropriate installations are made, we may assume that human beings from all countries could live there safely. Byrd even affirms that it is probably the most healthy climate in the world, for the intense cold of thousands of years has sterilize this continent, and rendered it absolutely germfree, with the consequences that ordinary and extraordinary sickness and diseases from which man suffers in other zones with different climates are here utterly unknown. There exist no problems of conservation and preservation of food supplies, for the latter keep indefinitely without any signs of deterioration; it may even be that later generations will come to regard the Antarctic as the natural storehouse for the whole world.

Plans are already on foot to set up permanent bases on the shores of this continent, and what so few years ago was regarded as a “dead continent” now promises to be a most active center of human life and endeavor.

1.When did man begin to explore the Antarctic?

A.About 100years ago.

B.In this century.

C.At the beginning of the 19th century.

D.In 1798.

2.What must the explorers be, even though they have modern equipment and techniques?

A.Brave and tough

B.Stubborn and arrogant.

C.Well-liked and humorous.

D.Stout and smart.

3.The most healthy climate in the world is___.

A.in South America.

B.in the Arctic Region.

C.in the Antarctic Continent.

D.in the Atlantic Ocean.

4.What kind of metals and minerals can we find in the Antarctic?

A.Magnetite, coal and ores.

B.Copper, coal and uranium.

C.Silver, natural gas and uranium.

D.Aluminum, copper and natural gas.

5.What is planned for the continent?

A.Building dams along the coasts.

B.Setting up several summer resorts along the coasts.

C.Mapping the coast and whole territory.

D.Setting up permanent bases on the coasts.






The captain realized that the men tried to deceive him so he made them work very hard for the rest of the voyage. (Passage One)











































Nowadays, China is stepping into the aging society. Therefore, the only-child generation is facing enormous pressure both from work and life. The Chinese government has begun to adjust the familyplanning policy and allows some families to have a second child under certain circumstances. However, the survey shows thatsome couples abandon to have a second child due to the increasing financial burden. Thus, in order to solve the aging problem,the basic thing is not relying on the increase of birth rate. The best solution is to establish an effective social security system.




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